bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms It has but established new classes new conditions of oppression new fo rms of struggle in place of the old ones * By bourgeoisie is meant the class of modern capitalists owners of the means of social production and employers of wage labour By proletariat the class of modern wage labourers who having no means of production of their own are reduced to selling their labour power in order to live Engels 1888 English edition t That is all written histo ry In 1847 the pre-history of society the social organisation splitting up into two great hostile camps into two great classes directly facing each other - Bourgeoisie and Proletariat From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed The discovery of America the rounding of the Cape opened up fresh g round for the rising bourgeoisie The East-Indian and Chinese markets the colonisation of America trade with the colonies the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally gave to commerce to navigation to industry an impulse never befo re known and bourgeoisie developed increased its capital and pyshed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages We see the refore how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange Each step in the develop ment of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance of that class An oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility an armed and self-governing association in the medieval commune* here independent urban republic as in Italy and Germany there taxable third estate of upper hand has put an end to all feudal patriarchal idyllic relations It has pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his natural superiors and has left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked selfinterest than callous cash payment It has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religious This was the name given their urban communities by the townsmen of Italy and France after they had purchased or conquered their initial rights of self-govern ment from their feudal lords Engels 1890 German edition Commune was the name ta ken in France by the nascent to wn s even befo re they must nestle everywhere settle everywhere establish connexions everywhere The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world market given a cos mopolitan character to production and consumption in every country but raw material drawn from the remotest zones industries whose products are consumed not only at home but in every quarter of the globe n place of the old wants satisfied by the production of the country we find new wants requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes In place of the old local and national seclusion and self-sufficiency we have intercourse in every direction unive rsal inter-dependence of nations And as in material so also in intellectual production The intellectual creations of individual nations become common property National one-sidedness and narrowmindedness become more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all preceding generations together Subjection of Nature's forces to man machinery application of chemistry to industry and agriculture steam-navigation railways electric telegraphs clearing of who le continents for cultivation canalisation of rivers whole populations conjured out of the ground-what earlier century had even a presentiment that such productive forces slumbered in the lap of social labour? We see then the means of production and of exchange on whose foundation the bourgeoisie built itself up were generated in feudal society At a certain stage in the development of these means of production and of exchange the conditions under which feudal society produced and exchanged the feudal organisation of agricultu re and manufacturing industry in one word the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces they became so many fetters They had to be burst asunder they were burst asunder Into the ir place stepped free competition accompanied by a social and political constitution adapted in it and the economic and political sway of the bourgeois class A similar movement is going on before our own eyes Modern their enemies the remnants of absolute monarchy the landowners the non-industrial bourgeois the petty bourgeois Thus the whole histo rical movement is concentrated in the hands of the bourgeoisie every victo ry so obtained is a victory for the bourgeoisie But with the development of industry the proletariat not only increases in number it becomes concentrated in greater masses its strength grows and it feels that strength more The various interests and conditions of life within the ranks of the proletariat are more and more equalised in proportion as machinery obliterates all distinctions of labour and nearly everywhe re country must of course first of all settle matters with its own bourgeoisie In depicting the most general phases of the development of the proletariat we traced the more or less veiled civil war raging within existing society up to the point whe re that war brea ks out into open revolution and where the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie lays the foundation for the sway of the proletariat Hitherto every form of society has been based as we have already seen on the antagonism of oppressing and oppressed classes But in order to oppress a class certain conditions mu st be assured to it under which it can at least continue its Communist Party an over-riding law It is unfit to rule because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave within his slavery because it cannot help letting him sink into such a state that it has to feed him instead of being fed by him Society can no longer live under this bourgeoisie in other words its existence is no longer compatible with society The essential conditions for the existence and for the sway of the bourgeois class is the formation and augmentation of capital the condition for capital is wage-labour Wage-labour rests exclusively on competition between the labourers The advance of industry whose represent the interests of the movement as a whole The Communists therefo re are on the one hand practically the most advanced and resolute section of the working-class parties of every country that section which pushes forward all others on the other hand theoretically they have over the great mass of the proletariat the advantage of clearly understanding the line of march the conditions and the ultimate general results of the proletarian movement The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all other proletarian parties formation of the proletariat into a class overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy at is to do away with the status of women as me re instruments of production For the rest nothing is more ridiculous than the virtuous indignation of our bourgeois at the community of women which they pretend is to be openly and officially established by the Communists The Communists have no need to introduce community of women it has existed almost from time immemorial Our bourgeois not content with having wives and daughters of their proleta rians at their disposal not to speak of common prostitutes take the greatest pleasure in seducing each othe r's wives Bourgeois marriage is in reality a system of wives in social order and are unavoidable as a means of entirely revolutionising the mode of production These measures will of course be different in different countries Neve rthe less in most advanced countries the following will be pretty generally applicable 1 Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes 2 A heavy progressive or graduated inco me tax 3 Abolition of all rights of in heritance 4 Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels 5 Centralisation of credit in the hands of the state by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly 6 Centralisation of class and as such sweeps away by force the old conditions of production then it will along with these conditions have swe pt away the conditions for the existence of class antagonisms and of classes generally and will thereby have abolished its own supremacy as a class In place of the old bourgeois society with its classes and class antagonisms we shall have an association in whi ch the free develop ment of each is the condition for the free development of all IlII Socialist and Communist Literature 1 Reactionary Socialism A Feudal Socialism Owing to their histo rical position it became the vo cation of the aristo cracies of F rance spiritst As the parson has ever gone hand in hand with the landlord so has Clerical Socialism with Feudal Socialism * Not the English Resto ration 1660-1689 but the French Restoration 1814-1830 Note by Engels to the English edition of 1888 t This applies chiefly to Germany where the landed aristocracy and squirearchy have large portions of their estates cultivated for their own account by stewards and are moreover extensive beetroot-sugar manufacture rs and distillers of potato spirits The wealthier British aristo cracy are as yet rather above that but they too know how to make up for declining rents by lending their names society The individual members of this class however are being constantly hurled down into the proletariat by the action of competition and as modern industry develops they even see the moment approaching when they will co mpletely disappear as an independent section of modern society to be replaced in manufactures agriculture and commerce by overlooke rs bailiffs and shopmen In countries like France where the peasants constitu te far more than half of the population it was natural that writers who sided with the proletariat against the bourgeoisie s hould use in their criticism of the bourgeois régime the standard of And on its part German Socialism recognised more and more its own calling as the bombastic representative of the petty-bourgeois Philistine It proclaimed the German nation to be the model nation and the German petty Philistine to be the typical man To every villainous meanness of this model man it gave a hidden hig her Socialistic interpretation the exact contrary of its real character It went to the extreme length of directly opposing the brutally destru ctive tendency of Communism and of proclaiming its supreme and impartial contempt of all class struggles With very few exceptions all the so-called Socialist and Communist publications that now 1847 circulate in Germany belong to the domain of this foul and enervating literature 2 Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism A part of the bourgeoisie is desirous of redressing social grievances in order to secure the continued existence of bourgeois society To this section belong economists philanthro pists humanitarians improve rs of the condition of the wo rking class organisers of charity members of societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals temperance fanatics hole-and-corner reforme rs of every imaginable kind This form of socialism has mo reover been wo rked out into complete syste ms We may cite Proudhon's Philosophie de la Misère as an exa mple of this fo rm The Socialistic bourgeois want all the advantages of modern social conditions without the struggles and dangers necessarily resulting therefrom They desire the existing state of society minus its revolutionary and disintegrating elements T hey wish for a bourgeoisie without a proletariat The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best and bourgeois Socialism develops this comfortable conception into various more or less complete systems In requiring the proletariat to carry out such a system and edition of 1890 32 Chapter Ill Socialist and Communist Literatu re Bourgeois Socialism attains adequate exp ression when and only when it becomes a mere figure of speech Free trade for the benefit of the working class Protective duties for the benefit of the working class Prison Reform for the benefit of the working class This is the last word and the only seriously meant word of bourgeois so cialism It is summed up in the phrase the bourgeois is a bourgeois - for the benefit of the wo rking class 3 Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism We do not here re fer to that literatu re which in every great modern revolution has eyes into the propaganda and the practical carrying out of their social plans In the formation of their plans they are conscious of caring chiefly for the inte rests of the wo rking class as being the most suffering class Only from the point of view of being the most suffering class does the proletariat exist for the m The undeveloped state of the class struggle as well as their own surroundings causes Socialists of this kind to consider themselves far superior to all class antagonisms They want to improve the condition of every member of society even that of the most favoured Hence they habitually appeal to society at large without possible recognition of the hostile antagonism between bourgeoisie and proletariat in order that the German workers may straightway use as so many weapons against the bourgeoisie the social and political conditions that the bourgeoisie must necessarily introdu ce along with its suprema cy and in order that after the fall of the reactionary classes in Germany the fight against the bourgeoisie itself may immediately begin The Communists turn their attention chiefly to Germany because that country is on the eve of a bourgeois revolution that is bound to be carried out under more advanced conditions of European civilisation countries The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains They have a world to win As By Popular request Just Zoom In COMRADES Meme
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